A.D. AKKAMAHADEVI*, N. ANNAPURNA, R.S. PATIL AND M. SHIVASHENKARAMURTHY
ICAR-Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dharwad, Karnataka, India.
Jackfruit is potential source of starch and has very good water and oil absorption properties which has potential applications in food industry. Every year huge quantity of jackfruit produce wasted because of its perishable nature and seasonal glut. To reduce the post harvest losses of nutritive fruit and seed, a study was conducted in ICAR-KVK, Uttara Kannada to develop different chat items with the jackfruit seed paste supplemented with different ingredients at home. The seed paste prepared after pressure cooking for 15 mins and removing seed coats. This paste mixed with different combinations of flours like rice, roasted bengalgram, maida, suji (Samolina) etc. in different ratios to prepare chats like chakli. After analysis, the best ratio for preparing chats was 1 : 1 : 1 jackfruit seed paste, rice flour and roasted Bengal gram powder respectively. Chats prepared by this ratio found most acceptable in terms of organoleptic studies done during trainings, method demonstrations and Jackfruit Melas at Sirsi.
jackfruit seed, organoleptic, chakli, value addition
India is the second largest producer of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) in the world and is considered as mother land of jackfruit.It has a wide distribution in Assam, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, foothills of Himalaya and in South Indian states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka (APAARI, 2012). Jackfruit is a nutritious fruit, rich in proteins, carbohydrates, Vitamins A, B and C and minerals like calcium, potassium, iron (Azad, 2000). Besides the nutritional benefits of jackfruit pulp, the interest towards the utilization of jackfruit seed as an alternative source of starch in food and industrial applications is being increased. Jackfruit seed flour is used a large number of recipes namely biryani, tarte tatin, idli, dumplings, appam, dosa etc. The jackfruit seeds are rich source of starch, high protein and fibre (Ocloo et al., 2010). The seeds are also marketed in canned as in boiled form like the beans, in brine and in tomato sauce (Morton, 1987). Jackfruit seed contains lignans, isoflavones, saponins, all phytonutrients and their health benefits are wide ranging from anticancer to antihypertensive, antiaging, antioxidant, antiulcer, and so on (Omale and Friday, 2010). Seeds contain two lectins namely jacalin and artocarpin. jacalin has been proved to be useful for the evaluation of the immune status of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (Hussain and Haq, 2006). In recent years, researchers paid attention on jackfruit seed as a potent source of starch because of its water and oil absorption properties and the stability of seed starch granules against thermal and mechanical shear enabling its application in food industry as an alternative source for wheat and rice (Mahanta and Kalita, 2015). Jackfruit seed flour is used a large number of recipes namely biryani, tarte tatin, idli, dumplings, appam, dosa etc. Keeping in view of the dietary benefits of jackfruit seed, the present study was conducted to find out the suitability and acceptability of jackfruit seed for preparing chakli.
The experimental study was carried out in ICARKrishi Vigyan Kendra Uttarakannada, Sirsi Karnataka (India) during 2014 to find out the acceptability of jackfruit seed paste for preparing chakli.
The jackfruit seeds were cleaned and put in pressure cooker along with water. After pressure cooking for 1520 minutes, seeds were allowed to cool down and then seed coats were removed manually. These seeds were made into paste in grinder with little water. chakli was prepared with different combinations of jackfruit seed paste according to the treatments. The different treatments are T0 : control (without jack fruit seed paste), T1 : ¼ cup, T2 : ½ cup, T3 : 0.75 cup, T4 : 1 cup, T5 : 1¼ cup, T6 : 1½ cup, T7 : 1¾ cup.
Jackfruit chakli was prepared by mixing 1 bowl rice flour, 1 bowl roasted Bengal gram flour, jackfruit seed paste, 1 table spoon chilli powder, ½ table spoon sesame, ½ table spoon ajwain, ½ table spoon jeera and coriander seed powder, salt according to taste and ¼ table spoon butter. The above ingredients were dry mixed thoroughly (except oil) and then half cup of hot water was added to the mix.The ingredients were kneaded with water (little quantity of water used so that dough is hard) into dough. The dough was put into chakli maker and pressed to make chaklis. These chaklis were deep fried until it gets light brown colour.
The deep fried chakli were kept for organoleptic evaluation. The ingredients and method for preparation of chaklis was evaluated by KVK staff, students of Forestry College and Horticulture college, Sirsi and the visitors of State Level Jackfruit Mela held at Sirsi on 14.06.2014. The organoleptic characters namely colour and appearance, texture, taste and overall acceptability of chaklis was evaluated on nine-point hedonic scale graded as 9 = like extremely, 8 = like very much, 7 = like moderately, 6 = like slightly, 5 = neither like or dislike, 4 = dislike slightly, 3 = dislike moderately, 2 = dislike very much and 1 = dislike extremely as described by Ndife et al. (2011).
Data obtained from sensory analysis were subjected in terms of average scores for different attributes and analyzed statistically by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis is carried out by using Microsoft excel.
Treatment T1recorded the highest value of 7.9 for taste followed by T4 (7.8), T3 (7.4), T2 (7.3), T1 (7.2), T5 (7.0), T6 (7.0) and T7 (6.8) which were significantly not different from each other. However, the statistical test revealed that, there was no impact of substitution of jack seed paste up to 35 per cent at 5 per cent level of significance.
The color of T4 treatment 4 (T4) chakli recorded the highest value of 7.9 for its very good color. T6 and T7 treatment chakli scored the lower values (7.1 and 6.9, respectively) with dull look. However, the statistical test revealed that, there were no impact of substitution of jack seed pasteupto35 per cent and all the proportions of chaklis are not significant with each other at 5 per cent level of significance.
The flavor of treatment (T4) chakli recorded the highest value of 8.0 for its very good color. T6 and T7
Preparation of chats with jackfruit seed paste
treatment chakli scored the lower values (7.1 and 6.9, respectively) with dull look. However, the statistical test revealed that, there were no impact of substitution of jack seed paste upto 35 per cent and all the proportions of chaklis are not significant with each other at 5 per cent level of significance.
Appearance was significantly differed among the treatments with varying ratios of ingredients used in making chakli. Treatment T4 recorded the highest value of 8.1 for appearance followed by T0 (8.0), T3 (7.7), T2 (7.6), T1, T5 and T7 (7.1) and T6 (7.0) and which were significantly different from each other.
According to the texture scores of chakli with the ratio of 1:1:1 rice flour, roasted bengal gram, jackfruit seed paste respectively recorded highest score i.e. 7.8 and least was observed in ratio of 1 : 1 : 1¼ and 1 : 1 : 1¾. The statistical test revealed that, there no significant difference among the treatments with each other at 5 per cent level of significance.
The data presented in the Table 1 shows the average sensory scores for different parameters in control and treated sample of jackfruit seed paste chakli, clearly indicates that treatments T4 (7.89) had the highest score followed by T0 (7.86), T1 (7.16), T2 (7.36), T3 (7.5), T5 (7.04), T6 (6.96) and T7 (6.88). The calculated value of F is greater than the tabulated value of F at 5% probability level. Therefore, it can be concluded that there was significant difference between treatments regarding the overall acceptability of jackfruit seed paste chakli.
The study indicated that, jackfruit seed paste supplementation with rice flour and roasted bengal gram flour has a great potential in developing chat products like chakli. In spite of affecting sensory qualities, the flavour, appearance and overall acceptability increased as the ratio of jack seed paste increased from ¼ to 1 where as it decreased when the ratio was increased. The best ratio for preparing spicy chats was 1:1:1 jackfruit seed paste, rice flour and roasted Bengal gram powder, respectively which resulted in overall acceptability in terms of organoleptic parameters and it can be concluded that, it is feasible to produce nutritionally value added chats from jackfruit seed paste supplementation.
APAARI. 2012. Jackfruit Improvement in the Asia-Pacific Region– A Status Report. Asia-Pacific Association of Agricultural Research Institutions, Bangkok, Thailand. 182
Azad, A.K. 2000. Genetic diversity of jackfruit in Bangladesh and development of propagation methods [Ph.D. thesis]. Southampton (UK): University of Southampton.
Hossain, A.K.M.A and Haq, N. 2006. “Jackfruit.” Artocarpus heterophyllus, Field Manual for Extension Workers and Farmers, SCUC, Southampton University, UK.
Mahanta, C.L and Kalita, D. 2015. Processing and utilization of jackfruit seeds. In: Preedy V.R (eds.). Processing and impact on active components in food. pp: 525-530. Academic Press, San Diego, USA.
Mondal, C., Remme, R.N., Mamun, A.A., Sultana, S., Ali, M.H and Mannan, M.A. 2013. Product development from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and analysis of nutritional quality of the processed products. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 4: 2319-2380.
Morton, J. 1987. Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus). In: Julia, F and Morton, Miami, F.L. Fruits of warm climates, pp. 58 – 64. Echo Point Books and Media, Winterville, N.C.
Ndife, J., Abdulraheem, L.O and Zakari, U.M. 2011. Evaluation of the nutritional and sensory quality of functional breads produced from whole wheat and soya bean flour blends. African Journal of Food Science. 5(8): 466-472.
Ocloo, F.C.K., Bans, D., Boatin, R., Adom, T and Agbemavor, W.S. 2010. Physico chemical, functional and pasting characteristics of flour produced from Jackfruits (Artocarpusheterophyllus) seeds. Agriclture and Biology Journal of North America. 1(5): 903-908.
Omale, J and Friday, E. 2010. Phytochemical composition, bioactivity and wound healing potential of Euphorbia Heterophylla (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research. 1(1): 54-63.