K. PRABHAKAR*, V.SUMATHI, T. GIRIDHARA KRISHNA, P.SUDHAKAR, S. JAFFAR BASHA AND G. KARUNA SAGAR
Department of Agronomy, S.V. Agricultural College, ANGRAU, Tirupati
A field experiment was undertaken Regional Agricultural Research Station, Nandyal during 2018-18 and 2019-20 to study the effect of crop residue incorporation, sowing time and irrigation on chickpea (Cicer arietinum. L.) under double cropping system in vertisols of Andhra Pradesh. The data pooled over for two successive years revealed that significantly higher dry matter production (4642 kg ha-1), seed yield (1546 kg ha-1) was recorded with incorporation of foxtail millet crop residue. Chickpea sown during November 1st FN recorded significantly higher number of pods per plant (33.1), seed weight plant-1 (10.1 g), dry matter production (4719 kg ha-1), seed yield (1660 kg ha-1) and stover yield (3524 kg ha-1). Application of irrigation during pre-flowering and pod development stage recorded significantly higher plant height (45.3 cm), number of branches plant-1 (8.4), number of pods plant-1 (34.1), seed weight plant-1 (10.1 g), dry matter production (4861 kg ha-1), seed yield (1819 kg ha-1), stover yield (3926 kg ha-1)and harvest index (46.3). Interaction effect between foxtail millet crop residue incorporation and November 1st FN sowing recorded significantly higher dry matter production (5146 kg ha-1) and seed yield (1839 kg ha-1) of chickpea, which proved to be best option for rabi chickpea production.
Chickpea, Crop residue incorporation, Time of sowing, Irrigation, Seed yield.
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the third most important pulse crop in the world, whereas in India chickpea is first most important pulse crop cultivated over an area of 9.55 million hectares producing 9.94 million tonnes with an average productivity of 1041 kg ha-1 (Anonymous, 2020). Chickpea cultivation in Andhra Pradesh under vertisols was also increased in recent years and occupied 5th position in area and production during the year 2018, due to increased area under double cropping system under rainfed and irrigated condition. Because farmers are adopting foxtail millet/ greengram- chickpea cropping system under rainfed situation and maize-chickpea cropping system in irrigated conditions, rather than cereal-cereal sequence cropping system. Once preceding crop was harvested, farmers have to decide what to do with the remaining crop residue i.e. the above ground biomass that is cut but not harvested. As such, it is thought to help maintain, or even to some extent restore, soil fertility Among pulses, chickpea is more sensitive to temperature (Kiran and Chimmad, 2018). Hence, time of sowing is an important agronomic factor affecting the productivity of chickpea, owing to changes in environmental conditions to which phenological stages of crops are exposed. Under late sown conditions, the growth of chickpea is affected resulting in lower yield. Grain yield is significantly sensitive to water stress during the pod setting to grain development periods irrespective of soil texture. Since most cultivators are not in a condition to irrigate chickpea crop, they could not irrigate properly as a result the seed yield is drastically reduced.
A field experiment was undertaken on vertisols of Regional Agricultural Research Station, Nandyal during 2018-19 and 2019-20 to study the effect of crop residue incorporation, sowing time and irrigation on Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under double cropping system. The experiment was laid out in a split-split plot design with foxtail millet, greeengram and fallow during kharif as main plots, time of sowing (October 2nd FN, November 1st FN, November 2nd FN and December 1st FN) as sub plots and irrigation time (irrigation at pre-flowering stage, irrigation at pod development stage and irrigation twice at pre-flowering and pod development stage) as sub sub plots. The varieties used for experimentation are “suryanandi” for foxtail millet, “WGG 42” for greengram and “Nandyala sanaga” (NBeG-3) for chickpea. Kharif crops were raised, economic parts viz. panicles/pods were harvested and residue was incorporated into soil, followed by chickpea sowing as per treatments. Soil of the site was medium in fertility and saline in reaction having pH 8.42, EC-0.24 dSm-1, organic carbon (0.32%) with available N of 143 kg ha-1, available P2O5 of 53 kg ha-1 and available K2O of 451 kg ha-1. An amount of 20 kg N+50 kg P2O5 were applied through urea and single SSP and given as basal just below the seed. Sowing was done in four intervals as D1 on October 2nd FN, D2 on November 1st FN, D3 on November 2nd FN, D4 on December 1st FN, in respective schedule. Healthy and matured seeds possessing high germination percentage was used for sowing. Seed @ 50 kg ha-1 was sown in the open furrows made with the help of hand hoe. The seeds were dropped to a depth of 5 cm and covered thoroughly. The spacing adopted for sowing was 30 cm x 10 cm. The data recorded on various parameters of crop during the course of investigation was statistically analyzed by following the analysis of variance procedure as suggested by Panse and Sukhatme (1985). Statistical significance was tested with ‘F’ test at 5 per cent level of probability and compared the treatment means with critical difference.
Effect of crop residue incorporation
Results on chickpea growth and yield attributes were presented in Table 1. Indicating that crop residues incorporation did not significantly influence plant height at harvest and 100 seed weight during both years of study and pooled, but drymatter production, number of branches per plant, and number of pods per at harvest was significantly influenced. Highest drymatter, more number of branches plant-1 and number of pods plant-1 at harvest was recorded in the plots which incorporated foxtail millet crop residue followed by greengram crop residue plots. Lower values were observed with fallow treatment during both the years of study. Organic matter added through organic resides might had prominent beneficial effect on soil properties which is more important for crop growth.
Incorporation of crop residues, shown significant effect on seed weight plant-1, seed yield, stover yield but failed to differ significantly with harvest index during both years of study and pooled (Table 2). Yearly variations were observed and all three yield components were significantly higher with foxtail millet crop residue incorporation followed by greengram crop residue incorporation.
The pooled values of seed weight per plant (8.7 g), seed yield (1546 kg ha-1) and stover yield (3192 kg ha-1) were also significantly higher with foxtail millet crop residue incorporation and at par with greengram crop residue incorporation field (7.8 g, 1474 kg ha-1, and 3192 kg ha-1 respectively). Incorporation of crop residues before chickpea sowing might be undergone decomposition and releases mineral nitrogen in root zone throughout crop growth stages which is readily available to chickpea crop and shown positive effect on production of more number of branches compared to fallow treatment. These findings were in agreement with Rehan et al. (2018).
The time of sowing did not significantly influenced plant height at harvest and 100 seed weight in both years and pooled, but drymatter production, number of branches per plant, and number of pods per at harvest was significantly influenced. Highest drymatter, more number of branches plant-1 and number of pods plant-1 at harvest was recorded in November 1st FN sowing followed by november 2nd Fnsowing sowing. lower values were recorded when sowings delayed, during both the years of study.
Chickpea sown during November 1st FN recorded significantly higher seed weight per plant (10.1 g), seed yield (1660 kg ha-1) and stover yield (3524 kg ha-1). Significantly lower seed weight per plant (5.9 g), seed yield (1167 kg ha-1) and stover yield (2624 kg ha-1) was recorded with sowing of chickpea during December 1st FN sowing.. Similar trend was observed during both the years of study. The improvement in seed yield in November 1st FN sowing over other dates of sowing was due to better availability of moisture, nutrients and congenial temperature prevailing at the time of germination and seedling establishment which might had contributed better growth, development of yield attributes and thus higher seed yields. The next best sowing times were November 2nd F.N, October 2nd FN and December 1st FN, in order of descent. These findings were in agreement with Sekhar et al. (2015)
The data indicated that time of irrigation influence growth and yield parameters during both years of study and also on pooled basis. Application of irrigation twice at pre-flowering and pod development stage recorded significantly higher plant height (45.3 cm), dry matter production (4861 kg ha-1), number of branches plant-1 (8.4), number of pods plant-1 (34.1), seed weight plant-1 (10.1 g), seed yield (1819 kg ha-1), stover yield (3926 kg ha-1) and harvest index (46.29). Application of irrigation during pre-flowering stage recorded significantly lower number of branches per plant (6.0), number of pods per plant (23.2), seed weight per plant (7.1 g), dry matter production (3880 kg ha-1), seed yield (1117 kg ha-1) and stover yield (2451 kg ha-1). Similar trend was recorded during 2018 and 2019. Irrigation enhanced number of branches plant-1 due to indeterminate growth habit of chickpea. Application of irrigation twice at pre-flowering and pod development stage enhanced dry matter production. This might be due to net gain of dry matter in vegetative structures after flowering is much higher with irrigation at pod filling stage. These results are in
agreement with Razzak et al. (2017) and Kumar and Luther (2018).
All the interaction effect of different treatments was non-significant except interaction between crop residue incorporation and irrigation stages. Interaction between crop residue incorporation and time of sowing significantly influences number of branches plant-1, number of pods plant-1, dry matter production, seed yield and stover yield. Interaction effect between foxtail millet
crop residue incorporation and November 1st FN sowing recorded significantly higher dry matter production (5109 kg ha-1) number of branches plant-1(11.5) number of pods plant-1(35.6) and seed yield (1839 kg ha-1) (Table 3, 3A, 3B and 3C). More number of branches plant-1 plant was recorded with November 1st FN sowing (D2) may be due favourable soil moisture and nutrients availability at root zone at growth period of crop.
The study revealed that in vertisols of scarce rainfall zone of AP in double cropping system, raising of foxtail millet during kharif was best option for crop residue incorporation, followed by raising of chickpea during November 1st FN with two irrigations one at pre-flowering and one at pod development stage for higher yield and to sustain soil fertility.
Anonymous. 2020. Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare Government of India, New Delhi. Indiastat. https://www.indiastat.com/table/agriculture-data/ 2agriculturural-production/225/993160/data.aspx.
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Razzak, M.A., Maniruzzaman, B., Hafiz, M.H.R., Pronay, B., Haque, A and Azad, A.K. 2014. Irrigation levels influenced on morphophysiological charecters of chickpea (Cicer arietinum l.). International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 5(4): 65- 75.
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M.A and Ali, N. 2018. Effect of phosphorous, rhizobium inoculation and residue types on chickpea productivity. Pure Applied Biology 7(4): 1203-1213.
Sekhar, D. Kumar, P.B and Rao, K.T. 2015. Performance of chickpea varieties under different dates of sowing in high altitude zone of Andhra Pradesh, India. International journal of current microbiology and applied sciences. 4(4): 329-332.