B. AFFIA PHENICA, T. LAKSHMI, S.V. PRASAD AND Y. REDDIRAMU
Department of Agricultural Extension, S.V.Agricultural College, ANGRAU, Tirupati-517502, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India
The present investigation was done to study the profile characteristics of rice farmers in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh. Ex- post facto research design was followed for the study and a sample of 120 respondents were drawn. The results of the study revealed that most of the respondents were middle aged (56.66%), educated upto high school (31.66%), medium farmers (35.83%),had medium annual income (70.83%), medium level of farming experience (49.17%), medium extension contact (61.67%), medium mass media exposure (50.83%), medium economic orientation (57.50%) , high risk orientation (46.67%), medium management orientation (56.67%) and medium deferred gratification (48.34%).
KEY WORDS: Profile characteristics, rice farmers, media exposure
Rice is most important and extensively grown food crop in the world. Almost one-fifth of the world’s population, depend on rice cultivation for their livelihoods. It is a pri- mary food source for more than one-third of world’s popu- lation and grown in 11 per cent of the world’s cultivated area. Andhra Pradesh is popularly known as granary of South India because of its abounding surplus in the pro- duction of food crops. It is often called as rice bowl of south India. The state is not only self-sufficient in food grains but also exports nearly one-fifth of its rice pro- duced. Rice is of key importance to Andhra Pradesh’s economy and its people. A large percentage of labour force earns a living from agriculture by cultivating rice. The state has significant strengths in rice production en- joying the right conditions for growing rice. The study area, Kurnool is the highest rice producing district in Rayalaseema. About 70 per cent of the working popula- tion of the district is either directly or indirectly engaged in agricultural and allied activities.
The study was conducted in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh during the year 2017-18.Ex-post facto research
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design was followed for the study. Three mandals of Kurnool district and four villages from each mandal viz., Rampalle, Mutyalapadu, D.Vanipenta and Settiveedu from Chagalmarrimandal, Chapirevula, Chaboli, Nandyaland Billalapur from Nandyalmandal, Ellavathula, Rudravaram, Peddakambaloor and Velagalapalle from Bandi Atmakur mandal were selected by using simple random method from which 120 rice farmers were selected as sample.Pre- tested interview schedule was used to collect the primary data and statistical techniques like Arithmetic mean, Standarddeviation, Frequencies and Percentage were used.
It is clear from the Table1 that about (56.66%) of the respondents were middle aged followed by old (30.84%) and young age (12.50%) groups, respectively. A critical observation of the above findings indicated that a consid- erable percentage of the respondents are of middle aged followed by old aged and the possible reasons may be that middle aged farmers have taken the rice cultivation traditionally from their fathers and fore fathers and were continuing it.This was true with the old aged farmers also. Another possible reason might be that most of the youth move out in search of white collar jobs or engaged in Gov- ernment jobs, various business activities and other profit- able occupations in pursuit of greater secured life than farming. The finding is in line with the findings of Ashok
It is evident from the Table 1 that (31.66%) of the respondents had education upto high school followed by primary school (22.50%), middle school (20.00%), collegiate (12.50%), illiterate (7.50%), and graduate (5.84%), and none in post graduate categories. The above trend revealed that majority of the rice farmers had high school level of education followed byprimary school and middle school education. The probable reason for majority of the farmers in high school may be formal education has the potentials for making up some of the deficiency in man; it enhances understanding and communication in agriculture. Another reason might be that, as education is gaining importance for the past three decades and brought out awareness among the farming community about the functional literacy. This result is in line with findings of Arathybalakrishnan (2011), Srividyarani (2015) and
It can be seen from Table 1 that majority of re- spondents (70.83%) had medium level of income followed by high (16.67%) and low (12.50%) levels of income, re- spectively. Majority of the respondents had medium level of income. It might be due to fact that most of the rice farmers had medium experience and were continuing rice cultivation since long time and most of the farmer’s in- come came through rice farming only. Hence their an- nual income was medium. Farmers who were having large farm size and earning from other sources like business and enterprises had high annual income. Similar findings were reported by Chidananda (2008) and Chinnamnaidu (2012).
It is observed from Table 1 that more than one- third of the respondents (35.83%) were medium farmers followed by small (28.34%), marginal (13.33%), semi- medium (12.50%) and large (10.00%) farmers.The pos- sible reason for this might be that most of the respondents were with other occupations and only those people who are illiterate had no alternate sources of income or occu- pation and confined to farming. In the recent times the families are of nuclear system and joint family system is fading away which resulted in fragmentation of land among the family members. Another reason might be that as capital investment in farming is rising, more and more farmers started retreating from farming resulting in the conversion of paddy lands to commercial ventures in some areas. This result is in agreement with Chinnamnaidu (2012) and Sriharinarayana (2013) and Srividyarani (2015).
It is apparent from Table 1 that most (49.17%) of the rice farmers had medium level of farming experience followed by high (31.67%) and low levels of farming experience (19.16%). This might be due to the fact that younger farmers are not interested in agriculture and were seeking other activities and white collar jobs. Hence most of the respondents were falling under medium to high farming experience. These results are in agreement with Sajithkumar (2004) and Arathybalakrishnan (2011).
Table 1 revealed that majority (61.67%) of the respondents had medium extension contact followed by low (22.50%) and high (15.83%) levels of extension con- tact. The possible reason for this might be that majority of the respondents being middle and old aged were un- able to contact extension personnel frequently because of lack of interest, lack of time and sometimes due to their health problems. Hence they were unable to move to the extension agencies which are far away from their villages. It was observed that the Agricultural Extension Officer was the main extension personnel to whom farm- ers had frequent extension contact. In some places con- tact farmers were the main source of information to the fellow folk. This result is in agreement with Kullayappanaik (2006) and Arathybalakrishnan (2011).
An overview of the Table 1 indicated that more than half (50.83%) of the respondents had medium level of mass media exposure followed by high (29.17%) and low (20.00%) levels of mass media exposure. This trend might be due to the fact that majority of the respondents were medium farmers with medium level of education. This is the reason why they did not pay attention to print media despite the availability at lower rate. Amongst the mass media viz., radio, reading newspaper and magazine, rice farmers preferred viewing television, as it is power- ful medium to mobilize opinion on many issues related to rice cultivation. This exposure helps them to update the information on several schemes and programmes. Extent of mass media utilization of rice farmers can be increased through organizing exhibitions and increasing educational status. This result is in agreement with Arathybalakrishnan (2011) and Sriharinarayana (2013).
It is transparent from Table 1 that more than half (57.50%) of the rice farmers had medium economic orientation followed by high (23.33%) and low (19.17%) levels of economic orientation. The possible reason for this might be that most of the respondents being middle to
old aged category they were less oriented towards profit maximization. Besides, most of the farmers viewed rice cultivation as traditional occupation rather than as an enterprise. This result is in agreement with Gopinath (2005), Singh (2010), Arathybalakrishnan (2011) and
It is clear from Table 1 that about 46.67 per cent of the respondents had high risk orientation followed by medium (37.50%) and low (15.83%) levels of risk orientation.The possible reason for this might be that majority of the farmers were having medium holdings and they were able to take more risk. Extension personnel should take necessary steps to encourage youngsters and middle aged people towards farming activities so that they can take more risks to achieve more economic returns. This result is in agreement with Ramu (2005) and Sriharinarayana (2013).
From the Table 1 it could be inferred that more than half (56.67%) of the respondents had medium management orientation followed by high (25.83%) and low (17.50%) orientation respectively. Management orientation is the ability of the farmer in scientific farm management in planning, production and marketing. Majority of the farmers being middle to old aged were having higher levels of farming experience. From the vast experience of farming they were good in planning and production aspects of farm management. This result is in agreement with Sajithkumar (2004), Ramu (2005) and Sriharinarayana (2013).
A glance at Table1 indicated that about (48.34%) of the respondents had medium deferred gratification fol- lowed by low (30.83%) and high (20.83%) levels of de- ferred gratification respectively. The possible reason for this may be that, most of the rice farmers belonged to small and medium category which made them to be very conservative in spending money, keeping in view their resources and aspirations. The anticipation of price and finance from the produce is taking more time, the respon- dents had medium deferred gratification. A few of the rice farmers fell under low differed gratification dueto fact that large farmers had more annual income and were not bothered about their saving to be required for the pro- duction of the crop.
Farmers with high extension contact were able to arrange their financial requirements for the production of crop and other necessities through credit from banks and other financial sources. This finding is in line with the
finding of Srinivasareddy (2008) and Chinnamnaidu (2012).
The findings revealed that majority of the farmers were middle aged,educated up to high school, had medium level of annual income, most of them were medium farmers,had medium farming experience,medium extension contact, medium mass media exposure, medium economic orientation, high risk orientation, medium management orientation and medium deferred gratification.
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