K.M. YUVARAJ*, M.L.N. REDDY AND K. UMAMAHESWARA RAO
All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Cashew, Dr. Y.S.R. Horticultural University,Cashew Research Station, Bapatla, Andhra Pradesh.
A field experiment was conducted at AICRP on Cashew, Cashew Research station, Dr. YSR Horticultural University Bapatla, Andhra Pradesh during 2002-15, to evaluate the performance of different new entries of cashew genotypes developed at different centers for their sustainability/adaptability. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications and ten genotypes and local check (BPP-8). In each treatment, four plants were accommodated with a spacing of 7.5 × 7.5 m. The results revealed that local check variety BPP-8 performed better over the other genotypes during the period of study. The variety BPP-8 recorded maximum vegetative growth parameters such as canopy height, canopy spread and canopy surface area (4.35 m, 9.19 m and 91.63 m2). However plant height and trunk girth was found maximum in genotype H-32/4 (4.71 m and 98.53 m2) followed by BPP-8 (4.50 m and 85.66 m2). The variety BPP-8 recorded a mean maximum annual nut yield per tree (8.16 kg tree-1) and maximum mean cumulative nut yield (54.32 kg tree-1) for eight annual harvests. The variety BPP-8 have been identified as suitable variety for rainfed cultivation in coastal area of Andhra Pradesh.
High Yielding Varieties (HYV), Genotypes, F1 hybrids, Vegetative growth, Nut yield, Cashew kernel.
Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) belonging to the family Anacardiacea was introduced from Brazil to India by the Portuguese during 16 century for afforestation as well as soil conservation purposes. Presently, cashew is treated as “wonder nut of the world” having nutrient rich kernel. Cashew kernel is a good source of protein (21%), fat (47%), carbohydrate (22%) and minerals. Cashew nut shell liquid (CSNL), by product of cashew nut is also treated as valuable raw materials for paints and varnish industries. The leading cashew growing state are coastal regions of Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, and Kerala in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and West Bengal in the East. The total production of cashew in India is 7.28 lakh tonnes from an area of 9.82 lakh hectare during 2012-13 (Saroj et al., 2014). Although during last 13 years, there is steady increase in both area and production of cashew in India, but the productivity rate is very low ranging from 600 to 800 kg ha-1 with an average of hardly 772 kg ha-1 as against potential productivity of 2000 kg ha-1. The primary reasons of low productivity of Indian cashew are due to existence of large areas under old senile plantation. Therefore, this low productivity of cashew can be addressed effectively by developing cashew genotypes with high yielding potential and adoption of scientific orchard management practices including proper plant protection measures. Keeping this in view, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the developed F hybrids for vegetative as well as nut yield under Andhrapradesh condition.
The 11 genotypes/Verities/Hybrids released from different research centers in Madakathara (H 1597 and K 22-1), RFRS Vengurla (H 662 and H 675) RRS Vridhachalam (H-11 and H-14) NRCC Puttur (H 32/4 and Goa 11/6) CRS Bhubaneswar (BH 85 and BH-6) and Andhra Pradesh (BPP-8) were tested for their performance in comparison with the BPP-8 commercial cultivar.
The field experiment was conducted at AICRP on cashew, Cashew Research Station, Bapatla Dr YSR Horticultural University Andhra Pradesh for the period from 2003 to 2016. To study the performance of different new entries of cashew verities at Bapatla centre. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with 11 new cashew entries replicated thrice. They were planted at 7.5 X 7.5 m2 spacing and accommodated 4 no. of plants per each treatment and adopting recommended package of practices uniformly. The vegetative growth
parameters such as plant height, Trunk girth, Canopy height canopy spread and canopy surface area were recorded. Then the ground coverage by canopy was worked out using following procedure.
Radius of canopy (m), r = (D1 + D2)/4
D1: Canopy spread in E-W direction (m)
D2: Canopy diameter in N-S direction (m)
Ground coverage by canopy (m2), A= r2
% of ground coverage by canopy = Ground coverage by canopy/ Actual area on the ground
Similarly, nut yield and yield attributing parameters were recorded from individual plants from each treatment year wise and mean data were considered for statistical analysis. Fresh and dry weights of a sub sample of 50 nuts from each tree was determined. The dry weight was recorded as per sun drying the nuts for at least 5-6 days. The weight per unit including shell was determined at 14% moisture as per the industrial standard (Kuppelweiser, 1989). The yield per tree was calculated as follows.
Nut yield = Mean nut weight × Total number of nuts per tree.
The statistical analysis was carried out by adopting the procedure suggested by Panse and Sukhatme (1989).
During the initial years of growth, lower branches were removed uniformly for convenience of intercultural operations and also to give a proper canopy shape to the plantation. Pruning was adapted uniformly to all the plants in the experiment as per the requirements.
Among the 11 genotypes evaluated the mean plant height recorded highest in H-32/4 (4.71 m) followed by BPP-8 (4.50 m). The mean canopy height, canopy spread and canopy surface area was recorded maximum in BPP-8 (4.35 m, 9.19 m and 91.63 m2) (Table 1).
Among the genotypes evaluated the mean plant height and trunk girth was recorded maximum in H- 32/4 (4.71 m and 98.53 cm) followed by BPP-8 (4.50 m and 85.66 cm) (Table 1).
The flowering intensity, Number of nuts per panicle and mean number of nuts per square meter was found to be significant among the 11 genotypes. Among the different 11 genotypes the duration of flowering was ranges from 61.0 days to 96.0 days. The flowering intensity per square meter was highest in H-1597 (23.0 days) which was significantly superior followed by H-11 (21.8). The sex ratio was ranged from 0.07 to 0.35 among the different genotypes (Table 2).
The maximum mean annual nut yield per tree during the year was recorded in BPP-8 (8.16 kg tree-1) and cumulative nut yield per tree was also found maximum in BPP-8 (54.32 kg tree-1) for 8 annual harvests. To the mean apple weight was recorded maximum in BH-6 (73.53 g).
The commercial var BPP-8, performed very well (interus of annaul net yield per tree), at cashew research station, Bapatla. Compared to an other genotypes, which were released from different agroclimatic zones of India.